Richard Baldwin

Richard Edward BALDWIN

Co-Director, Centre of Trade and Economic Integration
Spoken languages
English, French, Swedish
Areas of expertise
  • European Union
  • Growth
  • Multilateral diplomacy and international negotiation
  • Regional integration
  • Trade policies and law - WTO
Geographical Region of Expertise
  • Western and Central Europe



PhD, Massachussetts Institute of Technology

Richard Baldwin is Professor of International Economics at the Graduate Institute, Geneva since 1991, and Editor-in-Chief of Vox since he founded it in June 2007. He was President/Director of CEPR (2014-2018), and a visiting professor at Oxford (2012-2015), and MIT (2003). In terms of government service, he was a Senior Staff Economist for the President’s Council of Economic Advisors in the Bush Administration (1990-1991) on leave from Columbia University Business School where he was Associate Professor. He did his PhD in Economics at MIT with Paul Krugman with whom he has co-authored several articles. He advises governments and international organisation around the world, and is the author of numerous books and articles on international trade, globalisation, regionalism, and European integration. His 2016 book, The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalisation, was listed by Lawrence Summers as one of the five most important books on globalisation ever. His latest book, The Globotics Upheaval: Globalization, Robotics, and the Future of Work, was published in February 2019.
He wrote his PhD at MIT under the guidance of Paul Krugman, with whom he has co-author a half dozen articles. His MSc in economics is from LSE, his BA in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and he has honorary doctorates from the Turku School of Economics and Business in Finland (2005), the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland (2012), and the Pontifica Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP), in Peru (2014).
He is a member of the World Economic Forum (WEF) Stewardship Board on Trade and Investment Issues from 2016, having been a member of the WEF Global Agenda Council on Trade from 2009 to 2015. He was Vice Chair of the Academic Advisory Committee of the Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE) in Washington (2008 - 2012), and an Elected Member on the Council of the European Economic Association, (1999-2004, 2006-2011).






  • The Globotics Upheaval: Globalization, Robotics, and the Future of Work,  (1 ed.), United States, Oxford University Press, 2019.
  • The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization (1 ed.), Cambridge, MA, United States: Harvard University Press.
  • The Economics of European Integration (5 ed.), (joint with Charles Wyplosz), New York, NY, United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 458 pages, 2015 (first 2003, second 2005, third 2009, and fourth edition 2012).
  • Economic Geography and Public Policy (1 ed.), (joint with Rikard Forslid, Philippe Martin, Gianmarco Ottaviano, and Frédéric Robert-Nicoud), Princeton, NJ, United States: Princeton University Press, 481 pages, 2003.
  • Towards an Integrated Europe (1 ed.), London, United Kingdom: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 234 pages, 1994.

Policy monographs

  • Last Chance for the Doha Round: Final Report of the High-Level Trade Experts Group (1 ed.), (joint with Jagdish Bhagwati, Peter Sutherland, Kingsley Amoako, Muhamad Chatib Basri, Eckart Guth, Jaime Serra Puche, Subidey Togan, and Jürgen Von Hagen), London, United Kingdom:, 60 pages, 2011.
  • Study on the Impact of the Euro on Trade and Foreign Direct Investment (1 ed.), (joint with Virginia DiNino, Lionel Fontagné, Roberto De Santis, and Daria Taglioni), European Economic and Monetary Union Working Paper No. 321. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, 139 pages, 2008.
  • Multilateralising Regionalism: Ideas for a WTO Action Plan on Regionalism (1 ed.), (joint with Phil Thornton), London, United Kingdom: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 65 pages, 2008.
  • Come Sta Cambiando L’Italia (1 ed.), (joint with Giorgio Barba Navaretti and Tito Boeri). Bologna, Italy: Il Mulino, 222 pages, 2007.
  • In or Out: Does It Matter? An Evidence-Based Analysis of the Euro’s Trade Effects (1 ed.), London, United Kingdom: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 109 pages, 2006.
  • The Shape of a Swiss-US Free Trade Agreement (1 ed.), (joint with Gary Clyde Hufbauer), Washington, DC, United States: Peterson Institute, 224 pages, 2006.
  • The Spoke Trap: Hub and Spoke Bilateralism in East Asia (1 ed.), Sejong, Korea: Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, 120 pages, 2004.
  • Nice Try: Should the Treaty of Nice Be Ratified? (1 ed.), (joint with Erik Berglöf, Francesco Giavazzi, and Mika Widgrén), London, United Kingdom: Centre for Economic Policy Research,137 pages, 2001.
  • Is Bigger Better? The Economics of EC Enlargement (1 ed.), (joint with David Begg, Jean-Pierre Danthine, Vittorio Grilli, Jan Haaland, Manfred JM Neumann, Victor Norman, Anthony Venables, and Alan Winters), London, United Kingdom: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 115 pages, 1992.

Selected articles in refereed journals

  • “The World Trade Organization and the Future of Multilateralism,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 30(1), pp. 95–116, 2016. Also CEPR DP 11021 (Dec 2015).
    -  Republished in Jeffry A. Frieden, David A. Lake, and J. Lawrence Broz (Eds.), International Political Economy (6 ed.), forthcoming.
  •  “Value Creation and Trade in 21st Century Manufacturing,” (joint with Simon J. Evenett), Journal of Regional Science, vol. 55(1), pp. 31-50, 2015.
  • “Trade-in-goods and Trade-in-tasks: An Integrating Framework,” (joint with Frédéric Robert-Nicoud), Journal of International Economics, vol. 92(1), pp. 51-62, 2014. Also NBER WP 15882 (Apr 2010), CEPR DP 7775 (Apr 2010).
  • “Spiders and Snakes: Offshoring and Agglomeration in the Global Economy,” (joint with Anthony Venables), Journal of International Economics, vol. 90(2), pp. 245-254, 2013. Also NBER WP 16611 (Dec 2010), CEPR DP 8163 (Dec 2010).
  • “Are Free Trade Agreements Contagious?,” (joint with Dany Jaimovich), Journal of International Economics, vol. 88(1), pp. 1–16, 2012. Also NBER WP 16084 (Jun 2010), CEPR DP 7904 (Jun 2010).
  • “Zeros, Quality and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence,” (joint with James Harrigan), American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, vol. 3(2), pp. 60–88, 2011. Also NBER WP 13214 (Jul 2007), CEPR DP 6368 (Jun 2007).
  • “Tax Reform, Delocation, and Heterogeneous Firms,” (joint with Toshihiro Okubo), Scandinavian Journal of Economics, vol. 111(4), pp. 741–764, 2009. Also NBER WP 15019 (Jun 2009), CEPR DP 7340 (Jun 2009).
  • “EU Institutional Reform: Evidence on Globalization and International Cooperation,” American Economic Review P&P, vol. 98(2), pp. 127-132, 2008.
  • “Trade and Growth with Heterogeneous Firms,” (joint with Frédéric Robert-Nicoud), Journal of International Economics, vol. 74(1), pp. 21-34, 2008. Also NBER WP 12326 (Jun 2006), CEPR DP 5563 (Mar 2006), CEPR DP 4965 (Mar 2005).
  • “Entry and Asymmetric Lobbying: Why Governments Pick Losers,” (joint with Frédéric Robert-Nicoud), Journal of the European Economics Association, vol. 5(5), pp. 1064-1093, 2007. Also NBER WP 8756 (Feb 2002).
  • “Multilateralising Regionalism: Spaghetti Bowls as Building Blocs on the Path to Global Free Trade,” The World Economy, vol. 29(11), pp. 1451-1518, 2006. Also NBER WP 12545 (Oct 2006), CEPR DP 5775 (Aug 2006).
  • “Trade Liberalisation with Heterogeneous Firms,” (joint with Rikard Forslid), Review of Development Economics, vol. 14(2), pp. 161-176, 2010. Also NBER WP 12192 (May 2006). CEPR DP 4635 (Sep 2004).
  • “Heterogeneous firms, Agglomeration and Economic Geography: Spatial Selection and Sorting,” (joint with Toshihiro Okubo), Journal of Economic Geography, vol. 6(3), pp. 323-346, 2006. Also NBER WP 11650 (Oct 2005), CEPR DP 4602 (Sep 2004).
  • “Agglomeration, Integration and Tax Harmonization,” (joint with Paul Krugman), European Economic Review, vol. 48(1), pp. 1-23, 2004. Also NBER WP 9290 (Oct 2002), CEPR DP 2630 (Nov 2000).
  •  “Multiproduct Multinationals and Reciprocal FDI Dumping,” (joint with Gianmarco Ottaviano), Journal of International Economics, vol. 54(2), pp. 429-448, 2001. Also NBER WP 6483 (Mar 1998), CEPR DP 1851 (Mar 1998).
  •  “Trade Liberalisation and Endogenous Growth: A Q-Theory Approach,” (joint with Rikard Forslid), Journal of International Economics, vol. 50(2), pp. 497-517, 2000. Also NBER WP 5549 (April 1996).
  • “The Eastern Enlargement of the European Union,” European Economic Review, vol. 39(3), pp. 474-481, 1995.
  • “A Domino Theory of Regionalism,” in Richard Baldwin, Pertti Haaparanta, and Jaakko Kiander (Eds.), Expanding Membership of the European Union (1 ed.), Chapter 2, pp. 25–47. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Also NBER WP 4465 (Sep 1993), CEPR DP 857 (Nov 1993) and republished in three volumes. .
  •   “Measurable Dynamic Gains from Trade,” Journal of Political Economy, vol. 10(1), pp. 162-174, 1992. Also NBER WP 3147 (Oct 1989).
  • “On the Importance of Joining the EC's Single Market: The Perspective of EFTA Members,” Rivista di Politica Economica, vol. 12, pp. 267-284, 1992.
  • “Factor Market Barriers are Trade Barriers: Gains from Trade in 1992,” European Economic Review, vol. 34(4), pp. 831-850, 1990. Also NBER WP 2656 (Jul 1988).
  • “The Growth Effects of 1992,” Economic Policy, vol. 4(9), pp. 247-282, 1989. Also NBER WP 3119 (Sep 1989).
  • “Persistent Trade Effects of Large Exchange Rate Shocks,” (joint with Paul Krugman), Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 104(4), pp. 635-654, 1989. Also NBER WP 2017 (Sep 1986).
  • “Hysteresis in Import Prices: The Beachhead Effect,” American Economic Review, vol. 7(4), pp. 773-785, 1988. Also NBER WP 2545 (Mar 1988).
  • “Industrial Policy and International Competition in Wide-Bodied Jet Aircraft,” (joint with Paul Krugman), in R. Baldwin (Ed.), Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis (1 ed.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1988.
  • “Market Access and International Competition: A Simulation Study of 16K Random Access Memories,” (joint with Paul Krugman), in Robert Feenstra (Ed.), Empirical Methods for International Trade (1 ed.), Volume 3, Chapter 7, pp. 171-197. Cambridge, MA, United States: MIT Press, 1988. Also NBER WP 1936 (Jun 1986) and republished in three volumes..
  • “The Persistence of the US Trade Deficit,” (joint with Paul Krugman), Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol. 1987(1), pp. 1-55, 1987.

Other articles in refereed journals 

  • “Trade Policy and Industrialisation when Backward and Forward Linkages Matter,” (joint with Anthony Venables), Research in Economics, vol. 69(2), pp. 123-131, 2015.
  • “A Simple Model of the Juggernaut Effect of Trade Liberalisation,” (joint with Frédéric Robert-Nicoud), International Economics, vol. 143, pp. 70–79, 2015. Also CEPR DP 6607 (Dec 2007).
  • “Supply-chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses,” (joint with Javier Lopez-Gonzales), The World Economy, vol. 38(11), pp.1682–1721, 2015. Also NBER WP 18957 (April 2013), CEPR DP 9421 (April 2013).
  • “Tax Competition with Heterogeneous Firms,” (joint with Toshihiro Okubo), Spatial Economic Analysis, vol. 9(3), pp. 309-326, 2014. Also CEPR DP 9969 (May 2014).
  • “Gravity Chains: Estimating Bilateral Trade Flows when Parts and Components Trade is Important,” (joint with Daria Taglioni), Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, vol. 2(2), pp. 61-82, 2014. Also NBER WP 16672 (Jan 2011).
  • “Misthinking Globalization: Twentieth-Century Paradigms and Twenty First-century Challenges,” Australian Economic History Review, vol. 54(3), pp. 212-219, 2014.
  • “International Trade, Offshoring and Heterogeneous Firms,” (joint with Toshihiro Okubo), Review of International Economics, vol. 22(1), pp. 59–72, 2014. Also NBER WP 16660 (Jan 2011), and circulated as “Agglomeration, Offshoring and Heterogeneous Firms” CEPR DP 5663 (May 2006).
  • “WTO 2.0: Governance of 21st Century Trade,” The Review of International Organizations, vol. 9(2), pp. 261-283, 2014.
  • “Networked FDI: Sales and Sourcing Patterns of Japanese Foreign Affiliates,” (joint with Toshihiro Okubo), The World Economy, vol. 37(8), pp. 1051-1080, 2014. Also NBER WP 18083 (May 2012), CEPR DP 8963 (May 2012).
  • “Beggar-thy-neighbour Policies during the Crisis Era: Causes, Constraints, and Lessons for Maintaining Open Borders,” (joint with Simon Evenett), Oxford Review of Economic Policy, vol. 28(2), pp. 211-234, 2012.
  •  “A 3-Bloc Dance: East Asian Regionalism and the North Atlantic Trade Giants,” (joint with Theresa Carpenter), Singapore Economic Review, vol. 55(1), pp. 1-21, 2010.
  • “Managing the Noodle Bowl: The Fragility of East Asian Regionalism,” Singapore Economic Review, vol. 53(3), pp. 449-478, 2008. Also CEPR DP 5561 (Mar 2006).

eBooks edited

Conference volumes edited

Chapters in books and conference volumes

  • “Trade and Industrialization after Globalization’s Second Unbundling: How Building and Joining a Supply Chain Are Different and Why It Matters,” in Robert Feenstra and Alan Taylor (Eds.), Globalization in an Age of Crisis: Multilateral Economic Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century (1 ed.), Chapter 5, pp. 165–212. Chicago, IL, United States: University of Chicago Press, 2014. Also NBER WP 17716 (Dec 2011), CEPR DP 8768 (Jan 2012).
  • “CEPR’s Next Thirty Years,” in Richard Baldwin and Richard Portes (Eds.), CEPR at 30 (1 ed.), Chapter 11, pp. 171–179. London, United Kingdom: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2014.
  • “WTO 2.0: Governance of Global Supply-Chain Trade,” in Richard Baldwin, Masahiro Kawai, and Ganeshan Wignaraja (Eds.), A World Trade Organization for the 21st Century: The Asian Perspective (1 ed.), Chapter 2, pp. 12–47. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014. Shorter, more academic version published as “WTO 2.0: Governance of 21st Century Trade,” The Review of International Organizations, vol. 9(2), pp. 261-283, 2014. Longer version published as CEPR Policy Insight No. 64.
  • “Introduction and Overview,” (joint with Masahiro Kawai and Ganeshan Wignaraja), in Richard Baldwin, Masahiro Kawai, and Ganeshan Wignaraja (Eds.), A World Trade Organization for the 21st Century: The Asian Perspective (1 ed.), Chapter 1, pp. 1–11. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014.
  • “CEPR Milestones,” (joint with Stephen Yeo), in Richard Baldwin and Richard Portes (Eds.), CEPR at 30 (1 ed.), Chapter 2, pp. 7–20. London, United Kingdom: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2014.
  • “Global Supply Chains: Why They Emerged, Why They Matter, and Where They Are Going,” in Deborah K. Elms and Patrick Low (Eds.), Global Value Chains in a Changing World (1 ed.), Chapter 1, pp. 13–60. Geneva, Switzerland: World Trade Organization Publications, 2013. Also CEPR DP 9103 (Aug 2012), Fung Global Institute WP FGI-2012-1, (Jul 2012).
  •  “Preferential Trading Arrangements,” in Amrita Narlikar, Martin Daunton, and Robert Stern (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook on the World Trade Organization (1 ed.), Volume 7, Chapter 28, pp. 632–649. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • “Relocating the Value Chain: Industrial and Trade Policy in the 21st Century,” in Il SaKong and Fred Bergsten (Eds.), The New Vision for Koreas Trade in the One-trillion-dollar Trade Era (1 ed.), Washington, DC, United States: The Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2012.
  • “Value Creation and Trade in 21st Century Manufacturing: What Policies for UK Manufacturing?,” (joint with Simon Evenett), in David Greenaway (Ed.), The UK in a Global World: How Can the UK Focus on Steps in Global Value Chains That Really Add Value? (1 ed.), Chapter 4, pp. 71–128. London, United Kingdom: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2012.
  • “Integration of North American Economy and New-paradigm Globalisation,” in Aaron Sydor (Ed.), Global Value Chains: Impacts and Implications, Trade Policy Research (1 ed.), Chapter 2, pp. 43-76. Quebec, Canada: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2011. Also CEPR DP 7523.
  • “Economics,” in Jean-Pierre Chauffour and Jean-Christophe Maur (Eds.), Preferential Trade Agreement Policies for Development: A Handbook (1 ed.), Chapter 3, pp. 69–94. Washington, DC, United States: World Bank Publications, 2011.
  • “Preferential Trade Agreements and Multilateral Liberalization,” (joint with Freund Caroline), in Jean-Pierre Chauffour and Jean-Christophe Maur (Eds.), Preferential Trade Agreement Policies for Development: A Handbook (1 ed.), Chapter 6, pp. 121–142. Washington, DC, United States: World Bank Publications, 2011.
  • “The Euro’s Impact on Trade and Foreign Direct Investment,” in Marco Buti, Servaas Deroose, Vıtor Gaspar, and João Nogueira Martins (Eds.), The Euro: The First Decade (1 ed.), Chapter 17, pp. 678–709. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  •  “The East Asian Noodle Bowl Syndrome,” in Daisuke Hiratsuka and Fukunari Kimura (Eds.), East Asia’s Economic Integration: Progress and Benefit (1 ed.), Chapter 2, pp. 45–81. Basingstoke, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. More academic version: “Managing the Noodle Bowl: The Fragility of East Asian Regionalism,” Singapore Economic Review, vol. 53(3), pp. 449-478, 2008.
  •  “The Impact of Turkey’s Membership on EU Voting,” (joint with Mika Widgrén), in Subidey Togan and Bernard Hoekman (Eds.), Turkey: Economic Reform and Accession to the European Union (1 ed.), Chapter 13, pp. 331–340. Washington, DC, United States: World Bank Publications, 2005. Also CEPR DP 4954 (Mar 2005).
  • “Managing EU Enlargement,” in Helge Berger and Thomas Moutos (Eds.), Managing European Union Enlargement (1 ed.), Chapter 2, pp. 11–28. Cambridge, MA, United States: The MIT Press, 2004.
  • “Stepping Stones or Building Blocs? Regional and Multilateral Integration,” in Maria Oliva Armengol and Georges Pineau (Eds.), Regional Economic Integration in a Global Framework (1 ed.), pp. 113–134. Frankfurt, Germany: European Central Bank, 2004.
  • “Agglomeration and Regional Growth,” (joint with Philippe Martin), in Vern Henderson and Jacques- François Thisse (Eds.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics: Cities and Geography (1 ed.), Chapter 60, pp. 2671–2711. Philadelphia, PA, United States: Elsevier, 2004. Also CEPR DP 3960 (Jul 2003).
  • “Winners and Losers Under Various Dual Majority Rules for the EU Council of Ministers,” (joint with Mika Widgrén), in Matti Wiberg (Ed.), Reasoned Choices - Essays in Honor of Academy Professor Hannu Nurmi on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday (1 ed.), Helsinki, Finland: The Finnish Political Science Association, 2004. Also CEPR DP 4450 (Jun 2004).

Policy essays published in un-refereed series (Occasional Papers, etc.) (most recent)

  • “Rebooting the Eurozone: Step 1 – Agreeing a Crisis Narrative,” (joint with Thorsten Beck, Agnès Bénassy Quéré, Olivier Blanchard, Giancarlo Corsetti, Paul de Grauwe, Wouter den Haan, Francesco Giavazzi, Daniel Gros, Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan, Stefano Micossi, Elias Papaioannou, Paolo Pesenti, Christopher Pissarides, Guido Tabellini, and Beatrice Weder di Mauro), Policy Insight 85, Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2015.
  • “Unveiling the Evolving Sources of Value Added in Exports,” (joint with Rikard Forslid and Tadashi Ito), Papers and Reports: Joint Research Program Series 161, Institute of Developing Economies–Japan External Trade Organization (IDE-JETRO), 2015.
  • “A World without the WTO: What’s at Stake?,” (joint with Michitaka Nakatomi), Policy Insight 84, Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2015.
  • “What Caused the Eurozone Crisis?,” (joint with Daniel Gros), CEPS Commentaries, Centre for European Policy Studies, 2015.
  • “Multilateralising 21st Century Regionalism,” Global Forum on Trade: Reconciling Regionalism and Multilateralism in a Post-Bali World, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 2014.
  • “Portrait of Factory Asia: Production Network in Asia and Its Implication for Growth – the ‘Smile Curve’,” (joint with Tadashi Ito and Hitoshi Sato), Papers and Reports: Joint Research Program Series 159, Institute of Developing Economies–Japan External Trade Organization (IDE-JETRO), 2014.
  • “Oorzaken Van En Remedies Voor Seculaire Stagnatie,” (joint with Coen Teulings), Groei & Conjunctuur 4697, Economisch Statistische Berichten, 2014.

Discussions and comments published in journals (selected)

  • Book Review of Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade, by Jagdish Bhagwati, Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 47(1), pp. 180–182, 2009.

Working Papers




  • Member of the High Level Trade Experts’ Group (Bhagwati-Sutherland Commission), 2010 -2011.
  • Counsellor, World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council, 2009 – present.
Richard E. Baldwin

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